Named in honor of Abraham Lincoln, the 16th President of the U. S. Of America and is the

second ship in the U.S. Navy to bear his name

Chapter I, Appendix I and


PCU Abraham Lincoln (CVN-72) 1988 YEAR END REPORT

Chapter I, Appendix II


Named in honor of Abraham Lincoln, the 16th President of the U. S. Of America and is the second ship in the U.S. Navy to bear his name.

Chapter I

Appendix I



CVN-72 is named after Abraham Lincoln (1809-1865), 16th President of the United States of America (1861-1865). Abraham Lincoln will be forever remembered for his vital role as the leader who preserved the Union and began a process that led to the end of slavery in the United States. USS Abraham Lincoln (CVN-72) web site. NS027250.


U.S. Representative, U.S. President, Lawyer (1809–1865)


Abraham Lincoln was the 16th president of the United States. He preserved the Union during the U.S. Civil War and brought about the emancipation of slaves.


“Those who deny freedom to others, deserve it not for themselves.”


“I claim not to have controlled events, but confess plainly that events have controlled me.”


“[N]o man is good enough to govern another man, without that other's consent.”


“I have learned the value of old friends by making many new ones.”


“[G]overnment of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.”


“Whenever I hear anyone arguing over slavery, I feel a strong impulse to see it tried on him personally.”


“To give the victory to the right, not bloody bullets, but peaceful ballots only, are necessary.”


“Our defense is in the preservation of the spirit which prizes liberty as the heritage of all men, in all lands, every where. Destroy this spirit, and you have planted the seeds of despotism around your own doors.”


“Don't interfere with anything in the Constitution. That must be maintained, for it is the only safeguard of our liberties.”


“Always bear in mind that your own resolution to succeed, is more important than any other one thing.”


“With malice toward none; with charity for all; with firmness in the right, as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work we are in; to bind up the nation's wounds; to care for him who shall have borne the battle, and for his widow, and his orphan - to do all which may achieve and cherish a just and lasting peace, among ourselves, and with all nations.”


“I walk slowly, but I never walk backward.”


“Nearly all men can handle adversity, if you want to test a man's character, give him power.”


“I'm the big buck of this lick. If any of you want to try it, come on and whet your horns.”


“We can complain because rose bushes have thorns.”


“Am I not destroying my enemies when I make friends of them?”


“It is better to remain silent and be thought a fool than to open one's mouth and remove all doubt”” (Ref. ).


Abraham Lincoln




“Abraham Lincoln is regarded as one of America's greatest heroes due to both his incredible impact on the nation and his unique appeal. His is a remarkable story of the rise from humble beginnings to achieve the highest office in the land; then, a sudden and tragic death at a time when his country needed him most to complete the great task remaining before the nation. Lincoln's distinctively human and humane personality and historical role as savior of the Union and emancipator of the slaves creates a legacy that endures. His eloquence of democracy and his insistence that the Union was worth saving embody the ideals of self-government that all nations strive to achieve.




Abraham Lincoln was born in a log cabin in Hardin County, Kentucky to Thomas Lincoln and Nancy Hanks Lincoln. Thomas was a strong and determined pioneer who found a moderate level of prosperity and was well respected in the community. The couple had two other children: Abraham's older sister Sarah and younger brother Thomas, who died in infancy. Due to a land dispute, the Lincolns were forced to move from Kentucky to Perry County, Indiana in 1817, where the family "squatted" on public land to scrap out a living in a crude shelter, hunting game and farming a small plot. Thomas was eventually able to buy the land.


When young Abraham was 9 years old, his mother died on October 5, 1818, of tremetol (milk sickness) at age 34. The event was devastating on him and young Abraham grew more alienated from his father and quietly resented the hard work placed on him at an early age. Just over a year after Nancy's death, in December 1819, Thomas married Sarah Bush Johnston, a Kentucky widow with three children of her own. She was a strong and affectionate woman with whom Abraham quickly bonded.


Though both his parents were most likely illiterate, Sarah encouraged Abraham to read. It was while growing into manhood that he received his formal education—an estimated total of 18 months—a few days or weeks at a time. Reading material was in short supply in the Indiana wilderness. Neighbors recalled how Abraham would walk for miles to borrow a book. He undoubtedly read the family Bible and probably other popular books at that time such as Robinson Crusoe, Pilgrims Progress and Aesop’s Fables.


Five months before he received the Republican Party’s nomination for President, Lincoln discussed his life, and noted concerning his childhood: “I was born Feb. 12, 1809, in Hardin County, Kentucky. My parents were both born in Virginia, of undistinguished families – second families, perhaps I should say. My mother, who died in my tenth year, was of a family of the name of Hanks…My father…removed from Kentucky to… Indiana, in my eighth year…It was a wild region, with many bears and other wild animals still in the woods. There I grew up…Of course when I came of age I did not know much. Still somehow, I could read, write, and cipher…but that was all.”


During the sojourn in Indiana, Lincoln made a trip down the Mississippi to New Orleans, Louisiana, an experience that probably gave him his first actual experience as a man with slavery.


“In March, 1830, Lincoln moved to Macon County, Illinois with his father’s family but struck out on his own the following year. He hired on for another flatboat trip to New Orleans, and, upon his return, the promoter offered Lincoln work in his store and mill in New Salem, Illinois. Both businesses, however, failed within the year. When his father moved the family again to Coles County, 22-year-old Abraham Lincoln struck out on this own, making a living in manual labor. At six feet four inches tall, Lincoln was rawboned and lanky, but muscular and physically strong. He spoke with a backwoods twang and walked with a long-striding gait. He was known for his skill in wielding an ax and early on made a living splitting wood for fire and rail fencing. Over a period of years Lincoln worked as a shopkeeper, postmaster, and eventually general store owner. It was here that Lincoln, working with the public, acquired social skills and honed story-telling talent that made him popular with the locals.


Battlefield experience fighting alongside Shawnee chief Tecumseh during the War of 1812


As Lincoln’s livelihood became precarious, a dynamic Native American leader known as Ma-ka-tai-me-she-kia-kiak (Black Hawk), a man of exceptional martial prowess who gained battlefield experience fighting alongside Shawnee chief Tecumseh during the War of 1812, rose to prominence among the Fox and Sac Indians. These Native Americans had lost their Illinois lands in a disputed treaty signed in St. Louis in 1804. Black Hawk became determined to redress the wrongs which he felt that settlers committed against his people, and later repudiated what he considered to be the deception of the whites involved in orchestrating the treaty and the subsequent settlement of tribal lands, saying in part that he “touched the goose quill to the treaty–not knowing…that, by that act, I consented to give away my village. Had that been explained to me, I should have opposed it.”


Black Hawk War broke out in 1832 between the United States and Native Americans


In April and May of 1832, he led a band of perhaps a thousand disgruntled Fox and Sac out of the Iowa territory back to their former homes across the Mississippi River in northern Illinois. The return of the Indians to these lands sparked widespread panic among settlers. “The country is in a dreadful situation,” Sarah Bracken, a settler, wrote to her niece, Mary J. McKown, in Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, “no business of any kind going on, no crop making, the people all in garrison, a great many murders perpetrated, and distress of every kind that can be imagined.” Bracken fled from Wisconsin to Cynthiana, Kentucky. Illinois Governor John Reynolds responded to the fears of people living along the frontier by calling up militia to “repel the invasion.”


When the Black Hawk War broke out in 1832 between the United States and Native Americans, Lincoln joined a local militia company, the 1st Regiment of the Brigade of Mounted Volunteers, and his personal popularity and easy manner won him election to the office of captain by the volunteers in the area.


About 1,600 men, including a young Lincoln, mustered with General Edmund P. Gaines, the commander of the Army’s Western Department and a veteran of battles against Creeks and Seminoles, and a force of regulars under his command.


What would prove to be Lincoln’s lone opportunity for military distinction came to naught, however, as he later humbly noted that during the ensuing four month long war he endured only “a good many bloody struggles with the musquitoes [sic].” but was able to make several important political connections.


Abraham Lincoln began his political career


After the Black Hawk War, Lincoln returned to New Salem, where he delved into several occupations, including postmaster, surveyor and store owner. Although he had only attained barely a year of formal schooling, he decided upon the seemingly unlikely choice to pursue the profession of law. As a youth, however, he had learned to read and write, and to work through arithmetic, and Lincoln became an avid reader. In addition, the study of law in the early 19th century could be rather informal in general, and admission to the bar on the frontier even more so.


Lincoln unsuccessfully bid for a seat in the state legislature soon after he returned from the war. Abraham Lincoln began his political career and was elected to the Illinois state legislature, in 1834, as a member of the Whig Party. He supported the Whig politics of government-sponsored infrastructure and protective tariffs.


This political understanding led him to formulate his early views on slavery, not so much as a moral wrong, but as an impediment to economic development. It was around this time that he decided to become a lawyer, teaching himself the law by reading William Blackstone's Commentaries on the Laws of England.


Law Career


Lincoln acquired a license to practice law on 9 September 1836. After being admitted to the bar in 1837, he moved to Springfield, Illinois, and began to practice in the John T. Stuart law firm, a friend and legal and political mentor, entering into a partnership.


Illinois State Legislature


His interest in politics had predated his legal career and provided some of the stimulus toward his choice. After Lincoln succeeded to the state legislature in 1834, the people of Illinois reelected him in 1836, 1838, and 1840.


He became active in state Whig leadership, the party’s candidate for speaker twice and (despite defeat), served effectively as the Whig floor leader.


Anne Rutledge died at age 22


It was soon after this that he purportedly met and became romantically involved with Anne Rutledge. Before they had a chance to be engaged, a wave of typhoid fever came over New Salem and Anne died at age 22. Her death was said to have left Lincoln severely depressed. However, several historians disagree on the extent of Lincoln’s relationship with Rutledge and his level of sorrow at her death may be more the makings of legend.


Lincoln courted Mary Owens but marries Mary Todd


About a year after the death of Anne Rutledge, Lincoln courted Mary Owens. The two saw each other for a few months and marriage was considered. But in time, Lincoln called off the match. In 1840, Lincoln became engaged to Mary Todd, a high spirited, well-educated woman from a distinguished Kentucky family. In the beginning, many of the couple's friends and family couldn't understand Mary’s attraction, and at times Lincoln questioned it himself.


However, in 1841, the engagement was suddenly broken off, most likely at Lincoln's initiative. They met later at a social function and eventually married Mary Todd, a daughter of Eliza Parker and Robert S. Todd, pioneer settlers of Kentucky, on 4 November 1842. A childhood friend remembered her as vivacious and impulsive, though noted that “she now and then could not restrain a witty, sarcastic speech that cut deeper than she intended…”


Although their union became a stormy one marked by tensions and gossip, they produced four boys, but tragically, only one lived to maturity. During this period of his life Lincoln’s misgivings concerning slavery grew, and although he did not become a zealous Abolitionist, he became dedicated to eradicating slavery.


Law Career


In 1844, Abraham Lincoln partnered with William Herndon in the practice of law. Though the two had different jurisprudent styles, they developed a close professional and personal relationship. Lincoln made a good living in his early years as a lawyer, but found that Springfield alone didn't offer enough work, so to supplement his income, he followed the court as it made its rounds on the circuit to the various county seats in Illinois.


U.S. House of Representatives from 1847 to 1849


In 1846, he ran for the United States House of Representatives, defeating his Democratic opponent. Peter Cartwright. In Congress, he opposed the war brewing with the Mexicans but recognized the need for unity to win, and voted for necessary appropriations.


Abraham Lincoln served a single term in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1847 to 1849. His foray into national politics seemed to be as unremarkable as it was brief. He was the lone Whig from the state of Illinois, showing party loyalty, but finding few political allies.


He used his term in office to speak out against the Mexican-American War and supported Zachary Taylor for president in 1848. His criticism of the war made him unpopular back home and he decided not to run for second term, but instead returned Springfield to practice law. Many of the frontiersmen who had voted for Lincoln supported the war, however, and they did not reelect him in 1848.


Lobbyist for the Illinois Central Railroad as its company


By the 1850s, the railroad industry was moving west and Illinois found itself becoming a major hub for various companies. Abraham Lincoln served as a lobbyist for the Illinois Central Railroad as its company attorney. Success in several court cases brought other business clients as well—banks, insurance companies and manufacturing firms. Lincoln also did some criminal trials. In one case, a witness claimed that he could identify Lincoln's client who was accused of murder, because of the intense light from a full moon. Lincoln referred to an almanac and proved that the night in question had been too dark for the witness to see anything clearly. His client was acquitted.


Congress passed the Kansas-Nebraska Act


Following the war Lincoln worked determinedly for the Whig candidate, General Zachary Taylor, known to soldiers as “Old Rough and Ready.” Lincoln sought a position as the commissioner of the General Land Office, however, after Taylor became the 12th president, his administration refused to appoint Lincoln to the post. The ambitious Lincoln declined offers of less prominent offices in the Oregon territory and resumed practicing law in Illinois, and some of his cases went before federal courts and up to the Illinois Supreme Court, which enhanced Lincoln’s reputation.


During this time he stepped away somewhat from the political spectrum and pursued legal cases. In the interim, Stephen A. Douglas pushed the Kansas-Nebraska Act in 1854, which destroyed the Missouri Comprise and the Comprise reached four years earlier by allowing slavery in areas of the Louisiana Purchase previously closed to the institution. Lincoln supported a movement toward ‘free soil,’ sought the Whig nomination for the United States Senate. Within a year, however, he switched parties and embraced a combination of antislavery factions that became the Republicans.


The law provoked violent opposition in Kansas and Illinois, and it gave rise to the Republican Party. This awakened Abraham Lincoln's political zeal once again, and his views on slavery moved more toward moral indignation. Lincoln joined the Republican Party in 1856.


Supreme Court declared African Americans were not citizens and had no inherent rights


In 1857, the Supreme Court issued its controversial decision Scott v. Sanford, declaring African Americans were not citizens and had no inherent rights. Though Abraham Lincoln felt African Americans were not equal to whites, he believed the America's founders intended that all men were created with certain inalienable rights. Lincoln decided to challenge sitting U.S. Senator Stephen Douglas for his seat. In his nomination acceptance speech, he criticized Douglas, the Supreme Court, and President Buchanan for promoting slavery and declared "a house divided cannot stand."


Stirring debates on issues ranging from states' rights to western expansion


The 1858 Senate campaign featured seven debates held in different cities across Illinois. The two candidates didn't disappoint the public, giving stirring debates on issues ranging from states' rights to western expansion, but the central issue was slavery. Newspapers intensely covered the debates, often times with partisan commentary. In the end, the state legislature elected Douglas, but the exposure vaulted Lincoln into national politics, that propelled him toward national prominence as an opponent of slavery. His reputation, and availability after his loss in the Senatorial effort, gained Lincoln the Republican nomination for President of the United States in 1860.


Campaign to support Abraham Lincoln for the Presidency


In 1860, political operatives in Illinois organized a campaign to support Abraham Lincoln for the presidency. On May 18, at the Republican National Convention in Chicago, Lincoln surpassed better known candidates such as William Seward of New York and Salmon P. Chase of Ohio. Lincoln's nomination was due in part to his moderate views on slavery, his support for improving the national infrastructure, and the protective tariff. In the general election, Lincoln faced his friend and rival, Stephan Douglas, this time besting him in a four-way race that included John C. Breckinridge of the Northern Democrats and John Bell of the Constitution Party. Lincoln received not quite 40 percent of the popular vote, but carried 180 of 303 Electoral votes.


The brief Constitutional Union Party placed four candidates before the American people in 1860, and Lincoln became the nation’s 16th president with a plurality of 40 percent of the votes cast. “In your hands, my dissatisfied fellow countrymen, and not in mine, is the momentous issue of civil war,” Lincoln addressed southerners. “The government will not assail you…You have no oath registered in Heaven to destroy the government, while I shall have the most solemn one to preserve, protect and defend it.”


His success alarmed many southerners, however, who perceived that they would lose control of the government. Within two months seven states (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, South Carolina, and Texas) left the Union out of fear that leaders hostile to them would seize power in Washington. Lincoln persevered in his unwavering commitment to preserve the Union and attempted to persuade the southerners to remain within the Republic, but they formed the Confederate States of America.


Abraham Lincoln selected a strong cabinet composed of many of his political rivals, including William Seward, Salmon P. Chase, Edward Bates and Edwin Stanton. Formed out the adage "Hold your friends close and your enemies closer," Lincoln's Cabinet became one of his strongest assets in his first term in office… and he would need them. Before his inauguration in March, 1861, seven Southern states had seceded from the Union and by April the U.S. military installation Fort Sumter was under siege in Charleston Harbor, South Carolina. In the early morning hours of April 12, 1861, the guns stationed to protect the harbor blazed toward the fort signaling the start of America’s costliest and most deadly war.


Civil War


On 12 April 1861, South Carolinians fired upon Fort Sumter in Charleston harbor, which capitulated the next day. Two days later, Lincoln declared a state of insurrection and called for volunteers to crush the rebellion. Arkansas, North Carolina, Tennessee and Virginia promptly seceded. The President’s guiding principle throughout the terrible conflict became the restoration of unity, and only when persuasion failed did he turn to battle. As the nation disintegrated Lincoln turned to the commander of the Army, General Winfield Scott, known to many soldiers as “Old Fuss and Feathers.” Scott suggested a three-pronged strategy to defeat the southerners that became famous as his ‘Anaconda Plan’:


Abraham Lincoln responded to the crisis wielding powers as no other president before him. He distributed $2 million from the Treasury for war material without an appropriation from Congress; he called for 75,000 volunteers into military service without a declaration of war; and he suspended the writ of habeas corpus, arresting and imprisoning suspected Confederate sympathizers without a warrant.


Crushing the rebellion would be difficult under any circumstances, but the Civil War, with its preceding decades of white-hot partisan politics, was especially onerous. From all directions, Lincoln faced disparagement and defiance. He was often at odds with his generals, his Cabinet, his party and a majority of the American people.


Create and field a large army near Washington to defend the capital and to contain the principal Confederate forces.


1. Blockade the South.

2. Thrust up the Mississippi River and split the Confederates in two.


Lincoln demonstrated firm leadership, innovation and integrity concerning naval operations and following Scott’s counsel proclaimed a blockade of the Confederacy only six days after the fall of Fort Sumter. The South was dependant upon maritime trade, and Lincoln’s personal interest and intervention spurred planners to orchestrate a blockade of the Confederacy that ultimately proved successful in choking the South.


Combined with victories ashore, the blockade gradually deprived the South of access to foreign markets where southerners could trade wares for vital munitions, and prevented blockade runners from penetrating southern inlets and ports past blockaders to unload their crucial cargoes. In addition, Europeans developed alternate markets for key southern products such as cotton, to compensate for the reduction in trade. Although the Fleet operated somewhat dispersed, the Confederates seized key naval stations and ships from the outset, including the Navy Yard at Norfolk, Virginia.


Despite northern sabotage the southerners seized some vessels and shops, and gained an advantage that forced northerners to build a huge fleet virtually from scratch. To partially offset their lack of numbers, the rebels developed a fleet of ironclads, and both combatants pressed merchant ships into naval use. The northerners required deep water ships to enforce their coastal blockade and flotillas of river vessels to press up the great rivers of the South to cut the Confederacy. In addition, they belatedly considered ironclads as viable warships and enlisted the aid of a brilliant designer, John Ericsson, who devised and built ironclad Monitor during the Civil War, just in time for her to engage Confederate ironclad ram CSS Virginia (former U.S. screw frigate Merrimack) on Sunday 9 March 1862.


Virginia had wreaked havoc with wooden-hulled Union blockaders the day before; however, the two ships fiercely pounded each other in history’s first battle between powered ironclad ships. Although the battle proved inconclusive in breaking the North’s blockade, the fight revolutionized naval warfare. In addition, Lincoln’s interest in naval artillery directed him to encourage John A. Dahlgren, a gifted ordnance designer, to the Washington Navy Yard and locations around the capital, where Dahlgren labored in the development of artillery that provided decisive for Union fortunes. The President also supported naval aviation in the infancy of the service. Thaddeus Lowe approached Lincoln with the idea of establishing a corps of observation balloons. The Navy purchased George Washington Parke Custis, a coal barge built in the mid-1850s, in August 1861. Her name appropriately honored Lincoln’s father-in-law, the son of John P. Custis, George Washington’s stepson, and the father-in-law of General Robert E. Lee.


Lowe fitted her out with a gas-generating apparatus that he developed and which Dahlgren modified at the Washington Navy Yard, for service as what they termed “a balloon boat.” Early in the morning of 10 November 1861, steamer Coeur de Lion towed George Washington Parke Custis out of the yard and down the Potomac River. The next day Lowe, accompanied by an entourage led by General Daniel E. Sickles, ascended in his trial balloon from the barge off Mattawomen Creek to observe Confederate troops on the Virginia shore several miles away. Two days later Lowe reported: “We had a fine view of the enemy camp fires during the evening and saw the rebels constructing batteries at Freestone Point.” This operation and John La Mountain’s earlier ascension from vessel Fanny began the widespread use of balloons for reconnaissance work during the Civil War.


The Union Army's first year and a half of battlefield defeats made it especially difficult to keep morale up and support strong for a reunification the nation. With the hopeful, but by no means conclusive Union victory at Antietam on September 22, 1862, Lincoln felt confident enough to reshape the cause of the war from saving the union to abolishing slavery.


Meanwhile, abolitionists pressured the President to address the issue of slavery. He initially avoided deciding against the abominable institution, due to rival factions on both sides of the controversy; however, the Congress passed the Second Confiscation Act on 17 July 1862, which freed the slaves held by people in rebellion against the Union. The act served as a catalyst and revealed growing public support for action. The President prepared a Preliminary Proclamation and read the initial draft to Secretary of State William H. Seward and Secretary of the Navy Gideon Welles, on 13 July 1862.


The draft stunned the men, and Seward rightly considered that such a proclamation would sow discord across the South. Undaunted, Lincoln presented his proclamation to the cabinet nine days later. Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton also discerned that the edict would disrupt the Confederates, however, he foresaw some advantageous aspects for Northern fortunes, including removing many slaves from Southern owners and encouraging the fugitives to seek asylum within Union lines. Although the remaining men became largely divided upon the merits of the decree, Secretary of the Treasury Salmon P. Chase also supported the President.


The cabinet met again on 22 September 1862, and agreed (in substance) upon the final refinements to the draft, and the President composed the actual announcement as the nation entered the third bloody year of the Civil War, on 1 January 1863.


He issued the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863, which stated that all individuals who were held as slaves in rebellious states "henceforward shall be free." The action was more symbolic than effective because the North didn’t control any states in rebellion and the proclamation didn’t apply to Border States, Tennessee or some Louisiana parishes.



President Abraham Lincoln, 1864. Photographer unknown. Mathew Brady Collection (Army). NARA File # 111-B-3656 War & Conflict Book # 117. (DVIC id:HD-SN-99-01776). Defense Visual Information Center. NS027250a.


Although critics derided the proclamation for only addressing the issues of slaves held by their owners within seceding states, and did not apply to border states or regions which Northern troops had already occupied, the proclamation stated “that all persons held as slaves” within the seceding states, “are, and henceforward shall be free.”


The proclamation electrified African Americans on both sides of the front lines, and increasing numbers took up arms with the North until almost 200,000 black sailors and soldiers had fought to preserve the Republic and free their brethren by the end of the war. The proclamation provided a strong moral argument to the Northern cause, and solidified support of abolitionists for Lincoln, although some reactionaries and Southern sympathizers saw the President’s actions as a direct attack against their way of life.


Reconstruction began during the war as early as 1863 in areas firmly under Union military control. Abraham Lincoln favored a policy of quick reunification with a minimum of retribution. But he was confronted by a radical group of Republicans in the Senate and House that wanted complete allegiance and repentance from former Confederates.


For three decisive days in July 1863, tens of thousands of Union and Confederate soldiers fought across the fields and woods surrounding Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. General George G. Meade’s Army of the Potomac turned back General Robert E. Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia during this, the arguably bloodiest (over 51,000 men were killed, wounded or captured) and most decisive battle of the war.


Four months later Lincoln participated in the dedication of a cemetery to the manifold fallen at the battlefield, on 19 November 1863. The President delivered a brief speech of barely two minutes following Pastor Edward Everett, a renowned orator who held forth for almost three hours.


“Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal,” Lincoln began as he tackled the essence of the struggle between the states, of the reasons why the American people needed to continue the carnage through to a dénouement of unity, of victory that would heal a divided house and restore the Republic. And the sacrifice of the fallen determined his conclusion: “…From these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion.”


Lincoln suffered a loss of popularity during the political campaign of 1864 but managed to win reelection. On 22 August of that year the President addressed a group of soldiers from the 166th Ohio Regiment on the lawn of the White House:


“…It is in order that each of you may have through this free government which we have enjoyed, an open field and a fair chance for your industry, enterprise and intelligence; that you may all have equal privileges in the race of life, with all its desirable human aspirations. It is for this the struggle should be maintained, that we may not lose our birthright – not only for one, but for two or three years. The nation is worth fighting for, to secure such an inestimable jewel.” His wife Mary’s sojourn in the White House proved to be as equally tempestuous as their previous years together.


The First Lady believed herself (with some justification) widely misunderstood. She spent lavishly to furnish the White House and to entertain guests, which generated resentment among critics who accused her of a lack of patriotism, however, when she curtailed spending after her son Willie died in 1862, critics charged her with failing to fulfill social duties. Southerners scorned her as a traitor to her birth, while northerners suspected her of southern sympathies.


Yet the President stood loyally by her side throughout these trials, and commented contentedly as he observed Mrs. Lincoln charm guests during a White House reception: “My wife is as handsome as when she was a girl, and I…fell in love with her; and what is more, I have never fallen out.”


Gradually, the war effort improved for the North, though more by attrition than by brilliant military victories. But by 1864, the Confederate armies had eluded major defeat and Lincoln was convinced he'd be a one-term president. His nemesis, George B. McClellan, the former commander of the Army of the Potomac, challenged him for the presidency, but the contest wasn't even close. Lincoln received 55 percent of the popular vote and 212 of 243 Electoral votes. On April 9, 1865, General Robert E. Lee, commander of the Army of Virginia, surrendered his forces to Union General Ulysses S. Grant and the war for all intents and purposes was over.


Lincoln’s Second Term


The people elected Lincoln to a second term, which he inaugurated on 4 March 1865. During his address, he shared a brief glimpse of his extraordinary magnanimity: “With malice toward none; with charity for all; with firmness in the right, as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work we are in; to bind up the nation’s wounds.”


The President intended to heal the nation’s wounds by preparing flexible and generous terms for southerners, and encouraged them to lay down their arms and join their northern brethren in rebuilding the country.  John Wilkes Booth, however, an actor who somehow thought that he would help the South by joining a conspiracy of southern extremists, shot Lincoln on Good Friday 14 April 1865, while the President attended the play Our American Cousin at Ford’s Theater in Washington.




Before a political battle had a chance to firmly develop, Lincoln was assassinated on April 14, 1865, by well-known actor and Confederate sympathizer John Wilkes Booth at Ford's Theater in Washington, D.C. Lincoln was taken from the theater to a Petersen House across the street and laid in a coma for nine hours before dying the next morning. His body lay in state at the Capitol before a funeral train took him back to his final resting place in Springfield, Illinois.


Lincoln succumbed to his wound the following morning and was buried at Oak Ridge Cemetery in Springfield, Illinois, on 4 May 1865. Lincoln’s assassination shattered his wife, who never recovered from his death. Although she traveled abroad with her son “Tad” in search of health, distorted ideas concerning her finances plagued her, and after Tad’s death in 1871, she slipped further into mental dissolution and obsessed over perceived poverty and murderous plots. She died in 1882 at her sister’s house in Springfield, Illinois, the same home where 40 years before she had married her beloved husband” (Ref. Bio and the Bio logo are registered trademarks of A&E Television Networks, LLC. & 377).


“The Abraham Lincoln (CVN-72) keel was laid down 3 November 1984 at Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Corp., Newport News, Virginia and is the sixth nuclear-powered aircraft carrier and the fifth ship in the Nimitz class of nuclear-powered supercarriers, while the contract to build her was awarded on 27 December 1982. The ship was named in honor of Abraham Lincoln, our nation’s 16th president and is the second ship in the U.S. Navy to bear his name. The ballistic missile submarine Abraham Lincoln (SSBN-602) was in service 1961-81” (Ref. 72 & 377).


PCU Abraham Lincoln (CVN-72) 1988 YEAR END REPORT

Chapter I

Appendix II



The ship operated under the following chain of command as of 31 December 1988:


Command Composition and Organization of Abraham Lincoln as of 31 December 1988 (Ref. 378B-1988):


The ship's chain of command as of 31 December 1988 was:


Commander in Chief

President Ronald Wilson Reagan, 1981-1989 - 40th

Secretary of Defense

The Honorable Frank C. Carlucci - 16th
23 November 1987 - 20 January 1989

Secretary of the Navy

The Honorable James H. Webb - 61st

1 May 1987 - 23 Feb 1988
The Honorable William L. Ball - 62nd

28 Mar 1988 - 15 May 1989

Chief of Naval Operations

ADM James D. Watkins (1982–1986) - 22nd


Vice Admiral J. K. Ready, USN


Organizational Structure. Captain William B. Hayden served as Commanding Officer until relieved by Captain James O. Ellis, Jr. on 13 December 1988. Captain Stanley W. Bryant served as Executive Officer.


Department Heads serving aboard Abraham Lincoln as of 31 December 1988 were:


Commanding Officer - CO

CAPT William B. Hayden

Executive Officer - XO

CAPT Stanley W. Bryant

Administrative Officer - XO

LT Gregory NMN Moore

Air Officer

CDR John F. Williams

AIMD Officer

CDR August Scalia

Combat Systems Officer

LT Cmdr. Frank R. Severance

Religious Ministries Officer - RMD - Command Chaplain

CAPT John R. Fiol

Dental Officer

CDR Raymond G. Morin

Engineering Officer

CDR Richard L. Stuntzt

Communications Officer

LTJG Donald S. Budde (acting)

Maintenance Officer


Legal Officer - Command Judge Advocate

LCDR Eldon D. Risher

3-M Officer

CDR Harlan R. Harris


CDR John A. Cassidy

Senior Medical Officer

CDR Myron D. Almond

Operations Officer

CDR Charles K. Crandall

Reactor Officer

CAPT Ralph H. Lipfert

Safety Officer

CDR Jack E. Kauffman

Supply Officer

CDR David P. Keller

Deck - First Lieutenant

ENS Stanley A. Mullen (acting)

Training Officer

LCDR John F. Beazle

Weapons Officer

CDR James J. Destafney


“The following major accomplishments highlight Abraham Lincoln’s performance in CY 1988:


Major milestones accomplished by Air Department during 1988 were: Abraham Lincoln designated as first aircraft carrier to receive C-13, MOD-2 Catapult; first aircraft carrier to use ferrulum upper and lower rails on catapults; first carrier to have catapult alignments performed using photogrammetery; first carrier to receive A/S 32A-35 crash crane; first carrier to receive starboard side overboard stripping system for use in port; and first carrier to receive closed loop defuel system. Training of Air Department personnel included 3,088 formal training manhours; 3,264 general military training manhours; 5,624 on-the-job training manhours; and 128 underway manhours aboard USS America (CV-67). Personnel accomplishments for Air Department in 1988 include: ABCM Ronald E. Carter: Navy Commendation Medal, February; Lt. Albert J. Crutchfield: Navy Commendation Medal, September; ABEl Fred J. Beck: Sailor of the Month, April; and eventually, Beck was selected as the first Lincoln Sailor of the Year” (Ref. 378B-1988).


During 1988 the following decisions were reached within the Operations Department: Ship's Crest designed: first carrier to be built with SLQ-32-(v14; second carrier to be built with the Advanced Combat Direction System. Over 19,000 training manhours were conducted in 1988. Of those 5,856 were formal training, 1,220 general military, 7,000 on-the-job and 5,289 underway manhours aboard USS Theodore Roosevelt (CVN-71). PHC Darrel E. Erickson was selected for commissioning to ensign as a Limited Duty Officer in January 1989, OS3 David J. Wright was selected as Sailor of the Month for July and Lt. Lillard and OS1 Dennis M. Chiles received Navy Achievement Medals in November for their roles in establishing the Operations Department aboard Abraham Lincoln.


Engineering Department’s first space was accepted from the shipyard on a Type III turnover (2-183-1-Q, Reactor QC Division Office). By the end of the year ship's force owned over 125 compartments. Responsibility for operation and maintenance of the Auxiliary Boiler shifted from Reactor Department to Engineering on 23 December 1988


The Training Department offered many courses for the crew. While Abraham Lincoln crewmembers attended School of the Ship they were briefed on many subjects which would prepare them for shipboard life. Subjects include:an introduction of the course, CMC Brief, Uniform Regulations, Aircraft Carrier Organization, Shipboard Characteristics, Shipboard Terminology, UCMJ, Legal Services, Educational Services Officer, Family Services Disbursing Brief, Electrical Safety, Recreation Department, MAA Force, Retention Awareness, Personnel Indoctrination, Base Police, Efficiency Standards, Campus for Achievement, Watchstandlng and General Orders, Basic 3-M (3011, Purpose of Precommissioning Unit, Radcon, Code of Conduct, Law of Armed Conflict, Financial Responsibility, Shipboard/Shipyard Safety, Security of Classified Material, Red Cross, Navy Rights and Responsibilities, Sexual Harassment, OPSEC, DAPA, Chaplains Brief, Suicide Prevention, Flight Deck Safety, Dependent Dental, Navy Relief, Naval Investigative Service, Damage Control and Gitmo Wounds. The lectures are incorporated into four phases of instruction. Each of the four phases are three days in duration for a total of 12 days of formal instruction.


Seven-hundred and fifty-four crewmembers attended School of the Ship, 734 attended RADCON, 562 attended Shipboard Firefighting, 620 attended the Wet Trainer and 21 attended aircraft firefighting. A total of 455 no-cost orders and 112 cost orders were issued during calendar year 1988. Training costs for CY-88 were $43,115.91. There was a total of 478 personnel who attended formal classroom training and 79 personnel received on-the-job training.


The Aircraft Intermediate Maintenance Department (AIMD) Officer, Cmdr. August Scalia, arrived in December. AIMD conducted 2156.9 formal training manhours and 737 general military training manhours. Also, 96 total days were spent under way with USS Theodore Roosevelt (CVN-71). School Graduates include: 11 *An School and four "C" School graduates. AIMD's Sailor of the

Month(s) were: AT1 Keith D. Wentzell, (October); AZ2 Russell N. Johnson, (November); ASMAA (Mechanical) Paul M. Dabney, (December).


During calendar year 1988, the Communications Department provided record message traffic pickup and distribution to all departments on board Abraham Lincoln using the Supervisor of Shipbuilding Communications Center, Newport News, Va.  As of 31 December, one officer and 14 enlisted personnel were assigned to Communications Department. Between January and December 1988, Communications spaces went from 30 percent to 96 percent complete. Testing of Communications equipment began in January 1989. Seventy-six crewmembers assigned to Lincoln reenlisted in 1988 for a total money value of $1,405,880.30 in SRB payments. During the year, 820 new enlisted personnel were "checked in" by personnel. All receipt personnel accounts were handled by two personnelmen assigned to Personnel Support Detachment, Norfolk, Va. The new Source Data System provided direct diary and computer input, enabling personnel to be paid within three days after check-in and automatically updating the EDVR. The personnel office had five crewmembers assigned in January, with Chief Warrant Officer J.J. Vola as the Personnel Officer, and grew to a total of 16 by the end of 1988.


Approximately 10 personnel were processed for discharge due to hardship and disciplinary infractions. Also, n-ne personnel were transferred due to hospitalization and not qualified for new construction duty. One-thousand military and dependent identification card applications and 800 commuted rations and rations-in-kind cards were issued. Advancement Exams were given for all E-1 through E-7. Three-hundred-fifty nine exams for E-4 through E-7 and 120 FN/AN/SN were given.




JAN - 73; FEB - 51, MAR - 43; APR - 14; MAY - 32; JUN - 33; JUL - 35; AUG - 68; SEP - 90; OCT - 131; NOV - 127 and DEC – 123.


The Combat Systems Department conducted 8,000 formal training manhours, 2,700 general military training manhours, 4,500 on-the-job training manhours, 400 underway training manhours aboard USS Theodore Roosevelt (CVN-71) and 1,200 underway training manhours aboard USS Savannae (AOR-4).


As of 31 December 1988, the Navigation Department consisted of three officers and seven enlisted.


Over the course of 1988, the Weapons Department manning levels increased to approximately 50 personnel, resulting in divisional manning levels adequate to initiate key organizational functions and implement required programs. AOCS James E. Hawkins received a Navy Achievement Medal in November. Weapons Department conducted 4,419 formal training manhours, 1660 general military training manhours, 267 on-the-job training manhours and 480 underway training manhours aboard AVANNAE. There are two significant differences in Abraham Lincoln compared to USS Theodore Roosevelt (CVN-71). The upper stage three weapons elevator from the second deck to the main deck was removed, and the lower stage five and six weapons elevators are open to the main deck (instead of just reaching the second deck). Lincoln lost ammunition storage space due to added survivability modifications. The change restricts stowage of high explosive on the fourth deck and relocation of munition from the seventh deck. The .50 caliber machine gun mount locations are unsatisfactory due to blind areas in coverage. Ship's Request for Change #I187 was submitted in August and approved in March 1989. Mounts are tentatively scheduled to be relocated in Post Shakedown Availability from April through August 1990.


The Legal Office was busy procuring office equipment, obtaining reference materials, setting up the Legal Department, performing military justice matters, and providing basic legal services to Abraham Lincoln crewmembers. Once the Legal Officer reported on board, the Legal Department continued to perform the functions stated above as well as developing extensive software packages for the word processing equipment and establishing an expanded legal assistance program. The Legal Department completed 66 non-judicial punishment cases, 11 summary courts-martial, three special courts-martial, 17 administrative discharges, 68 legal assistance cases, and 25 wills during 1988.


Efforts from S-6 and S-8 Division personnel resulted in the validation of over 7,500 outfitting records and the submission of 1,500 follow-ups.


S-6 Division implemented monthly "wall to wall" inventories of the "security cage" and identified over 600 "shipped but not received" initial outfitting requisitions at CAX. Over 400 requisitions were identified that had been cancelled and required reordering. 5-8 Division initiated a "spot check" program CAX to validate the NAVSEA contractor inventory accuracy and implemented a program which validated all "open purchase" requirements for validity and characteristic application.


S-3 Division transferred $2,400.00 to the Welfare and Recreation Account from Ship's Store profits.


S-6 Division submitted more than 600 follow-ups on requisitions with bad or delinquent status; validated over 7,100 Support Equipment records; and the stores and S-6 officer attended the second Abraham Lincoln Consolidated Air Mix Site Activation and F/A-18 Site Activation Meeting.


S-8 Division initiated steps to turn over OSI items held at CAX to respective ship's departments. Submitted over 1,200 requisition follow-ups from NSC detachment; a "characteristics validation'' program was implemented to acquire information from departments on open purchase outfitting requirements.


S-8 Division audited more than 700 outfitting requirements at CAX; 2,000 outfitting line items were turned over to respective departments; a wall-to-wall inventory resulted in a 99 percent accuracy in the security cage at CAX. The NSC detachment identified over $400,000.00 of reorders, recouped over $370,000.00 in cancellations and identified 365 items which were shipped but not received


S-8 Division turned more than 500,000 line items over to respective departments at CAX; audited over 600 outfitting requirements (98 percent validity rate) and identified over 650 items shipped but not received; commenced a space validation program on board to validate space assignment and identify material deficiencies; commenced utilization of the automated follow-up system at NSC Norfolk, Va. and completed a major validation of all items shipped and not received, identifying over $500,000.00 worth of material in that category.


During December 1988, personnel waited in anticipation of the receipt and management of the AVCAL inventory; completed the validation of support equipment received at CAX and began preparation of custody records for all Maintenance Assist Modules (MAMS) and elements of Support Equipment located at CAX. S-8 Division turned over 3,500 line items at CAX to their respective departments. A complete validation and audit was completed at the outfitting section at NSC NORVA which resulted in the receipt of 213 outftting requirements, previously determined lost in shipment. Over 750 automatic follow-ups were submitted, and the total dollar value of outfitting requirements categorized as shipped but not received dropped from $500,000.00 to approximately $198,000.00.


At the end of 1988, there were four officers and 14 enlisted personnel on board Medical Department, with one man temporarily assigned to the Training Department for School of the Ship staff.


By the end of December1988, Dental Department Spaces were 80 percent complete. Three officers and six enlisted personnel were assigned.


As of December 1988, there were four enlisted personnel, with MACM Tommy Taylor Jr. as the Command Chief Master-At-Arms. Security Division established and submitted ACRs for Physical Security/Law Enforcement outfitting. The outfitting requirements were approved by Naval Sea Systems Command (NAVSEA).


The Security. Patrol Office space 2-93-2-4 was also approved by NAVSEA. NAVSEA provided authority for the Supervisor of Shipbuilding to negotiate with Newport News Shipbuilding and Drydock Company for sufficient privately owned vehicle parking spaces for the Precommissioning Unit to meet critical personnel requirements.


Protected parking was established, preventing vandalism and theft of both private and government vehicles. A Barracks Security Watch was established and implemented in all Lincoln berthing spaces to ensure good order and discipline. The Urinalysis program was established at this stage of Lincoln’s construction, to enable screening and detect potential drug problems. At present approximately 20 percent of the crew is tested monthly. Surveys were conducted by Commander, Naval Air Force, U.S. Atlantic Fleet Force Security Group to provide assistance and evaluate physical security to determine compliance with both OPNAV and COMNAVAIRLANT physical security/law enforcement requirements. Visits proved to be productive, identifying areas of concern, such as recommending installation of CCTV and Security Alarms in key locations. The accomplishments by Security Division included: MACM Taylor awarded Navy Commendation Medal; BM1 Jose G. Caringal awarded a letter of commendation for his participation in making Enterprise Hall, U. S. Naval Station, Norfolk, Va., Barracks of the Quarter and Barracks of the Year.


The Abraham Lincoln is the Navy's newest aircraft carrier, and is the second notable ship to be named after the 16th President of the United States.


The first Abraham Lincoln war a 382 foot nuclear powered submarine. It was commissioned in 1961 and decommissioned in 1982.


Major milestones of the Abraham Lincoln include:


Keel laid: 3 November 1984

Launched: 13 February 1988

Commissioning: 18 November 1989


Abraham Lincoln will be the largest ship ever built for the U.S. Navy. It's dimensions are:


– Length between perpendiculars (bow to stern), 1040 feet.

– Breadth at main deck (Width side to side), 134 feet.

– Length of flight deck, 1092 feet.

– Extreme breadth, side to side of flight deck, 257 feet.

– Area of flight deck, 4 1/2 acres.

– Height, Keel to Mart Top, 244 feet (equal to a 24 story building).

– Combat load displacement (tonnage), 97,000 tons.




Ship's company of the Abraham Lincoln will number 3,500 personnel and another 2,700 personnel will be attached to the Air Wing (Aircraft squadron flight crew and maintenance personnel). The entire crew will be served three meals a day, for a total of 18,600 meals daily, and 130,000 meals weekly.


The 2,700 Squadron/Air Wing personnel aboard Abraham Lincoln will maintain and fly several different types of aircraft:


– SH-3 Sea King Helicopter: used for both Antisubmarine Warfare and search and rescue.

– S-3A Viking: used primarily for Antisubmarine Warfare.

– EA-6B Prowler: used in Electronic Warfare.

– F/A-18 Hornet: dual mission fighter and light attack bomber.

– A-6 Intruder: a low level, all weather, attack bomber.

– F-14 Tomcat: primarily an interceptor, with a wide variety of other fighter applications.

– E-2C Hawkeye: is used for airborne early warning purposes.


Other than the primary defense of aircraft and helicopters aboard the braham Lincoln, it will also be protected by:


– NATO Seasparrow Missile Syatem. Consists of three Launchers with eight tubes each. Used for short range and is a fully automatic rapid reaction system capable of providing a point defense capability against Anti-Aircraft (A/A) and Anti-Ship Missile (ASMI type threats.


– Phalanx. This is a closed loop radar spotting ability with a Gatling type gun and a firing rate of 3,000 rounds per minute.


– The ship will be powered by two pressurized water nuclear reactors which are expected to provide sufficient energy to steam for at least 13 years, and an estimated 800,000 to one million miles before refueling.

– The main engines will be Geared Siteam Turbines with 280,000 shaft horsepower each. Four shafts will carry the power from the reduction gears to the screws. The four screws have five blades each, are 21 feet high, and weigh 66,200 pounds apiece.


– The two rudders each weigh 65 tone.


– Ship's speed will be in excess of 30 knots or 45 miles per hour.


– The capacity of the air conditioning plants will be 2,520 tons, or enough to erve 800 homes.


– 400,000 gallons of water will be supplied to the ships crew daily. That's enough to serve the daily needs of over 2,000 homes at an average use of 200 gallons a day.


There will also be:


– over 3,000 compartments

– four aircraft elevators (4,000 square feet each)

– four aircraft catapults

– over 1,000 telephones

– over one million tubes, transistors and diodes

– about 900 miles of electrical cable

– two anchors each weighing 30 tons, with each link weighing 365 pounds


The first commanding officer of the Abraham Lincoln was Capt.J.J. Dantone, and the first executive officer was Cmdr. S.W. Bryant.


Capt. Dantone was unexpectedly transferred to take command of the Dwight D. Eisenhower in September of 1988. Upon his departure, Cmdr. Bryant was promoted to captain and assumed interim command of the ship, with Cmdr. J.A. Cassidy, the ship's navigator, assuming duties of executive officer. On Dec. 13, 1988, Capt. William B. Bayden, took command of Abraham Lincoln. Capt. Hayden reported aboard from the Iwo Jima, an amphibious helicopter landing ship based in Norfolk, Va. Capt. Bryant then reassumed duties as executive officer.


The Abraham Lincoln would not be the last of the nuclear aircraft carriers. Construction began on the George Washington on August 25, 1986 and it's due to be commissioned in 1991” (Ref. 378B-1988).
































































Named in honor of Abraham Lincoln, the 16th President of the U. S. Of America and is the second ship in the U.S. Navy to bear his name.

Chapter I, Appendix I and PCU Abraham Lincoln (CVN-72) 1988 YEAR END REPORT, Chapter I, Appendix II


Operations Evening Light and Eagle Claw, A Sailors tale of his Tour of duty in the U.S. Navy (August 1977 to February 1983)


A Sailors Tale of His Tour of Duty in the U. S. Navy (August 1977 to February 1983) Operations Evening Light and Eagle Claw

(24 April 1980)


Book - ISBN NO.


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Operations Evening Light and Eagle Claw (24 April 1980) Iran and Air Arm History (1941 to Present)


Operations Evening Light and Eagle Claw (24 April 1980) Iran and Air Arm History (1941 to 2016)










(10 July 1944 to 31 December 1975) -










25 August 1981) -
















USS Abraham Lincoln (CVN-72) History Vol. I (27 December 1982 to 6 May 2003)


USS Abraham Lincoln (CVN-72) History Vol. I  (27 December 1982 to

6 May 2003)


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USS Abraham Lincoln (CVN-72) History Vol. II (7 May 2003 to 13 January 2010)


USS Abraham Lincoln

(CVN-72) History Vol. II

(7 May 2003 to 13 January 2010)


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USS Abraham Lincoln (CVN-72) History Vol. III (14 January 2010 to 31 December 2012)



USS Abraham Lincoln

(CVN-72) History Vol. III

(14 January 2010 to

31 December 2012)


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USS Abraham Lincoln (CVN-72) History of Refueling and Complex Overhaul (RCOH)  (1 January 2013 to 2017)


USS Abraham Lincoln

(CVN-72) History of

Refueling and Complex

Overhaul (RCOH)

(1 January 2013 to 2017

Sea Trials) Volume IV


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Control Number: 


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(1953 to 2016)




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